I. GEOGRAPHICAL CONDITION:
Ninh Binh province is located in the South of Northern Delta, geographic coordinate from 19050’ to 200 27’ North parallel, from 1050 32’ to 106027’East meridian. Tam Diep range of mountains running to the direction of North West – South East creates a natural border between Ninh Binh and Thanh Hoa province. The East and North East parts are surrounded by Day river which is natural border between Ninh Binh with Ha Nam and Nam Dinh provinces. The North part is adjacent to Hoa Binh province, the South part is the East Sea. The 1A National highway, the Ten highway and the South – North railway route go through the center of Ninh Binh province.
Topography of Ninh Binh province is divided by 3 areas clearly:
* The delta area:
Including: Ninh Binh city, Yen Khanh district, Kim Son district and the remaining area of other districts in the province. the area is about 101 ha, holds 71.1% of the total natural land area of the province, this is the most populous area of the province, about 90% population of the whole province. The average height of the area is 0.9÷1.2m. The main kind of soil is alluvium. Potential for development of the area is agriculture: growing rice, agricultural products and short-term industrial trees. For industry: mainly repairing ship and boat , processing food stuffs, garment, service bussiness and river port development.
*The Hilly and mountainous area:
This area is in the West and South-West part of the province, includes the South-West area of Nho Quan district, Tam Diep town, The West of Gia Vien district, the South-West of Hoa Lu district and Yen Mo district. Total area is about 35,000 ha, accounting for 24% of the total natural land area of the province. The average height is 90 – 120m, especially the height in the mountain area is above 200m.
This area holds 90% hilly, mountainous and forest area of province, so it is suitable for developing industry, such as: producing building materials, producing sugar, processing woods, processing fruits, tourism, breeding big cattles (buffalo, cow, goat), growing fruit trees (pineapple, litchee, sugar apple), long-tern industrial trees (tea, coffee) and afforesting.
* The Coastal area:
Ninh Binh province has over 15 km of coastal line. This area lies in the area of four coastal communes of Kim son district: Kim Trung, Kim Hai, Kim Dong, Kim Tan. Its area is about 6,000 ha, accounting for 4.2% of the total natural land area of the province. This area has just been extended and being in the period of improvement, so suitable for growing protective forest (mangrove), rush, one crop of rice and breeding fisheries.
III. THE CLIMATE:
The climate of Ninh Binh is tropic and monsoon. The weather is divided into 4 clear seasons: Spring, Summer, Autumn, Winter. the average temperature is about 230c, the average number of sunny hours is over 1100 hours. the average rainfall is 1800mm.
Ninh Binh is an important transport point from North, Central to South.
- The road system: In the scope of Ninh Binh province, there are some national roads, such as: 1A, 10, 12A, 12B, 59A.
- The railway system: The South – North railway route with the length of 19 km including 4 stations (Ninh Binh, Cau Yen, Ghenh and Dong giao) goes through Ninh Binh province, which creates favourable condition for passengers, goods and building material transportation.
- The waterway system: Ninh Binh province has a convenient waterway transportation system due to having a lot of big rivers, such as: Day, Hoang Long, Can, Vac, Van and Lang river. Besides, Ninh Binh has three big river ports (Ninh Phuc, Ninh Binh, Kim Son), contributing an important part in socio – economic development of the province.
IV. RIVER AND HYDROGRAPHY:
River system in Ninh Binh includes Day river, Hoang Long river, Boi river, An river, Vac river, Lang river and Van Sang river with total length of 496 km. These rivers are arranged widely in the whole province. Average density of rivers is 0.5 km/km2, and usually go from North - West to South – East and then to East Sea.
VI. NATURAL RESOURSES:
Total natural area of the province is 1,390 km2 including alluvium, feralitic.
Water includes surface and ground water.
- surface water: quite abundant, convenient for irrigation, agricultural production and waterway transport services. Density of rivers and springs is at medium level. The total legth of main rivers is over 496 km, accounting for 3,401 ha, density reaches 0.5 km/km2. Besides, Ninh Binh province has 21 big lakes, area of 1,270 ha, capacity 14,500,000 m3, providing irrigation water for 4,438 ha of land.
- Ground water: ground water is mainly in area of Nho Quan district and Tam Diep town. Total capacity of ground water in Ria (Nho Quan) reaches 361,391 m3/day, in Tam Diep reaches 112,183 m3/day.
In comparison with other provinces in the Red river Delta, Ninh Binh owns the largest forest area, about 19,033 ha, accounting for 23.5% forest area of the region, 13.3% natural forest area of the province.
Natural forest: Total area is 13,633.2 ha, the timber reserve is 1.1 million m3, mainly in Nho Quan district.
Cuc Phuong primeval forest is typical tropical forest with the diversity and richness of animals and plants.
Planted forest: Area gains 5,387 ha, mainly in Nho quan, Kim Son, Tam Diep with the main trees of pine, eucalyptus, mangrove, and reed.
Ninh Binh has over 15.000 km of coastal line with thousands hectare of territorial waters. Day seaport is the biggest; its depth ensures that big ships with thousand-ton tonnage can be easily out and in. Ninh Binh sea area is good environment to develop sea products: aquaculture, exploitation with the output is 2000÷2500 tons/year.
5. Mineral resources:
Limestone is the biggest mineral resourse of Ninh Binh province. Quite big limestone ranges starts from Hoa Binh (with the direction of North West – South East) through Nho Quan, Gia Vien, Hoa Lu, Tam Diep, Yen Mo to East Sea. Their length of over 40 km, area of over 1,200 ha, reserve is tens of cubic meters billions and Dolomit millions. Limestone is big material resourse for producing cement, building materials and some other chemicals.
Clay is distributed scatteredly in low hills areas in Yen Son and Yen Binh commune (Tam Diep town), Gia Vien district, Yen Mo district. Clay is used for making bricks, tiles and material for casting.
- Mineral water:
Mineral water with good quality (mainly in Cuc Phuong, Nho Quan district and Kenh Ga, Gia Vien district) can be exploited for people’s everyday life activities or for tourism with big reserve. Especially, mineral water in Kenh Ga is salty, its heat is at 53÷5400C. Cuc Phuong mineral water with high magiecabonat content is suitable for disease treatment and beverages processing.
Peat with small reserve (over 2 million tons) is distributed in Gia Son, Son Ha (Nho Quan district), Quang Son (Tam Diep town), can be used to produce fertilizers for agriculture.
VII. POPULATION, LABOUR FORCE AND JOB:
With the population size in 2009 was nearly 900 thousand people. In comparison with the population of Red River Delta region, Ninh Binh population holds 5.6% and equal to 1.2 % population of the whole country. Population density of the province (about 675 people/km2) is lower than average density of the region, preparing under 1 million people up to 2020 and is “golden population period”, is a remarkable advantage to provide the labor force, advantage in management, is free from presure for ecemonic development.
Big labor resource on both quality and quantity, and can be seen the first period with total labor in 2008 covered 51.2% of population (about 480.3 million people). Ninh Binh has low unemployment rate in urban area (3.7%), the quality of labor resource is highly appriciated in comparison with Red River Delta region and whole country. Thus, this is an advantage element for economic development, especially for fields which need big labor force such as: fine arts, light industry.
VIII. TOURISM – CULTURE:
the tourism of the province is abundant and diversified: mountains, lakes, forest with historical and cultural monuments and famous landscapes such as: Tam Coc – Bich Dong, Cuc Phuong National Park; Van Long Ecotourism area, Phat Dien Stone Church...the most recently is Trang An Ecological Tourism Complex, Bai Dinh Pagoda (the biggest one in Vietnam). Ninh Binh has been completing the application to submit UNESCO for recognition:
- Hoa Lu ancient capital historical and cultural monument is world cultural heritage.
- Trang An grottoes complex is world natural heritage.
Ninh Binh is situated in the interference place with other areas: North West, Red River Delta and North of Central part, is affected by both Hoa Binh and Dong Son cultures, which creates a quite diversity culture with different features in comparison with other provinces in Red River Delta.
- Big festivals in Ninh Binh: Hoa Lu ancient capital traditional festival, Tai Vi temple festival, Bai Dinh church festival, Bao Ban festival, …
- Famous courses in Ninh Binh: Ancient capital half-done goat, Huong Mai Com Chay, Tong Truong anabas, Gia Vien large edible snail, meat roll.